суббота, 23 февраля 2013 г.

Leonov’s task. How to start the reaction of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF)?


Leonov’s task. From the book: Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 599-602. 

Today contradictions in quantum theory lie between temperature and atom recoil with the emission (absorption) of photon. It would seem that as the energy of the emitted photon increases, the recoil of the photon on the atoms becomes greater and the intensity of the temperature variations of atoms (molecules) also increases. In practice everything appears reversed, the largest recoil is produced by the low-energy infrared photon (thermal photon). The physical task of Leonov is thus formulated. It is necessary to mathematically prove that the thermal recoil of the atom (molecule) is inversely proportional to energy of the radiated photon.

Thus, gentlemen down to work! You became accustomed that the recoil of a gun is proportional to the pulse of the ejected bullet. It is now necessary to prove the reverse. These are the paradoxes of quantum theory. I will continue the criticism of the activity of the atomic physicist E. Kruglyakov who, after being absorbed in fighting pseudoscience, dedicated his entire life to the creation of anti-science such as the false concept of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF). One agrees that the temperature concept of CTF was not formulated by Kruglyakov but by founders of thermonuclear physics A.D. Sakharov, etc. But they also were not insured against errors. More than four decades with the participation E. Kruglyakov we were told that the future of power engineering is controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF), closing  down other directions of studies. With the aid of CTF they promised us to solve all energy problems of humanity by the year 2000, after spending enormous sums of money. Time has gone past, energy problems not only have not been solved but the situation is now in a critical state. A new international project ITER costing 10 billion US$ (with Russia contributing $1 billion) has been proposed instead of inoperative CTF systems of the Tokamak type.

I openly declare that the ITER project is a grandiose scientific adventure and will taxpayers money on antiscientific and futile studies as was the case with Tokamaks. CTF is based on the false temperature concept of synthesis. It was originally considered that it would be sufficient to heat the hydrogen-forming plasma in a magnetic trap to a temperature of 15 million degrees to start CTF of helium with the release of energy as a result of the mass defect of nuclei. The temperature in the plasma has already reached 70 million degrees, but CTF does not take place. The temperature concept of nuclear fusion does not work. Kruglyakov and his associates lead the government of the country and scientific community into a dead end.

It is now necessary to scientifically explain the reasons for the aforesaid. But I before advise Kruglyakov as an atomic scientist in the region of CTF, instead of becoming a flimsy inquisitor, he should study my work in the physics of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles, for example ‘Electrical nature of nuclear forces’ and others. Ignorance of the structure of nucleons and of the nature of nuclear forces resulted in the antiscientific concept CTF based erroneously on high temperature. I shall also show to Mr E. Kruglyakov that in interaction of nucleons inside the nucleus the zones of antigravity repulsion are opened and they stabilise nucleons and atomic nuclei. Antigravity is also widespread in nature, like gravity. It turns out that the physicist-atomic scientist, E. Kruglyakov, Academician of the RAS does not understand the nature of nuclear physics, but he attempts to stick the labels of antiscience to others.

Now, when the nature of nuclear forces in theory of Superunification is known, it is difficult to find a way of including the temperature factor in the CTF concept as a factor of overcoming the electrostatic repulsion of protons (hydrogen nuclei). The temperature concept of CTF was based on the positive experience with the explosion of the H-bomb, where the detonator was a preliminary nuclear explosion accompanied by the release of colossal energy. But in this case the temperature is one the factors of energy release. The high pressures and the accelerations, which ‘press’ proton nuclei onto each other to the distances of the action of nuclear forces (the electric forces of the alternating shells of nucleons), overcoming the electrostatic repulsion of nuclei, are other factors.

Purely because of technical reasons it is not possible to produce colossal pressures and particle accelerations under the action of nuclear explosion inside the thermonuclear reactors under laboratory conditions. Heating of plasma in the magnetic trap of Tokamaks is irrelevant. Knowing the values of nuclear forces and cross sections of their action, it is not difficult to calculate pressures and forces which must be overcome for the nucleons to come closer together in spite of their electrostatic repulsion. For this purpose the proton nuclei of light elements must be squeezed by the accelerated fragments of the atomic nuclei of heavy elements (uranium, plutonium and others) transfer ring a force momentum to splinters, as is done in the thermonuclear bomb. The acceleration of the splinters of heavy nuclei occurs as a result of their strongest electrostatic repulsion with splitting at the moment of nuclear explosion. The conditions for the natural acceleration of the splinters of nuclei are thus created.



As a result we obtain a nuclear press, when light nuclei are squeezed between the accelerated fragments of heavy nuclei and the quantized space-time, which presents the elastic quantized medium (EQM) which acts as a wall (anvil). The strength of this anvil increases with an increase in the strength of the effect of acceleration and the moments of splinters on the anvil. This factor of the quantised medium, which possesses the properties of superhardness under the influence of colossal accelerations and forces from the side of the second required factor – accelerated fragments of heavy nuclei, was never examined in the nuclear fusion theory. Without the two factors indicated, which play the basic role in the explosion of a thermonuclear bomb it will not be possible to start CTF.

On the other hand, I wanted to verify by calculations how the temperature concept of thermonuclear fusion is related to nuclear fusion. I could not find in the literature any sources describing the calculations linking nuclear forces with temperature. Of course, they could not be there. In order to calculate these forces it is necessary to have a clear idea about the temperature not as a parameter on the scale of a thermometer or photon energy, but as a thermal power engineering factor. But also here, as already mentioned, present quantum theory gives failures. It occurs, the higher the photon energy, the less the return down the atom it produces. The greatest return produces the low-energy infrared photon (thermal photon), which is not capable to ensure the recoil momentum of atomic nucleus for overcoming the electrostatic barrier between the nuclei of light elements.

I specially focused attention on this energy paradox, since temperature we connect for the sake of the temperature variations of atoms and molecules as a result of return with the emission (re-emission) of photon. Before its time the development of quantum theory also began based on the energy paradox, when was revealed discrete nature of the emission of atom and dependence of photon energy beyond its frequency, but not from the intensity of emission. This contradicted classical electrodynamics. Today such contradictions to quantum theory lie between temperature and atom recoil during the emission (absorption) of the photon when it is not possible to overcome the force of the electrostatic repulsion of atomic nuclei when attempting their synthesis. The temperature concept of CTF is antiscientific in its basis and it does not have any prospects for further development in power engineering.

Thus, the solution of the Leonov’s problem is not only of purely theoretical interest but it also represents the colossal applied value for the processes generating thermal energy in the new power cycles of quantum power engineering. This refers to a number of new experimental effects with the liberation of excess heat, including the Usherenko effect (effect of the ultra deep penetration of micro particles into solid targets). If in CTF they still search for the effect of positive heat liberation, then in the Usherenko effect this release of energy exceeds 102…104 times the kinetic energy of the accelerated particles–strikers. However, this only one of many facts which experimentally confirm the prospects for the development of quantum power engineering as the basis of power engineering in the 21st century. By the way, quantum power engineering is a more general concept which also includes nuclear reactions which, in the final analysis, are only one of the methods of the extraction of energy of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). This completely corresponds to the theory of Superunification and the Einstein’s concept of the unified field.

More details on new fundamental discoveries and the project ‘Quantum Energetics’ can be found http://www.quanton.ru/

References

1. Leonov V.S., Nature of non-radiation and radiation of the orbital electron, Chapter 7 of this book.

2. Leonov V.S., The two-rotor structure of the photon. The photon hygroscopic effect, Chapter 6 of this book.

3. Myakishev G.Ya., Temperature, Physical Encyclopedia, Vol. 5, Bol’shaya Rossiiskaya Entsiklopediya, Moscow, 1998, 61–62.